Abu Zubair meriwayatkan dari Jabir bin Abdullah bahwa Nabi Muhammad SAW bersabda:

"Setiap penyakit ada obatnya. Jika obat yang tepat diberikan dengan izin Allah, penyakit itu akan sembuh".

(HR. Muslim, Ahmad dan Hakim).

Senin, 28 Desember 2009

Mini-mental state examination

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

The mini-mental state examination (MMSE) or Folstein test is a brief 30-point questionnaire test that is used to screen for cognitive impairment. It is commonly used in medicine to screen for dementia. It is also used to estimate the severity of cognitive impairment at a given point in time and to follow the course of cognitive changes in an individual over time, thus making it an effective way to document an individual's response to treatment.

In the time span of about 10 minutes it samples various functions including arithmetic, memory and orientation. It was introduced by Folstein et al. in 1975,[1]. This test is not the same thing as a mental status examination. The standard MMSE form which is currently published by Psychological Assessment Resources is based on its original 1975 conceptualization, with minor subsequent modifications by the authors.

Various other tests are also used, such as the Hodkinson[2] abbreviated mental test score (1972, geriatrics) or the General Practitioner Assessment Of Cognition as well as longer formal tests for deeper analysis of specific deficits.

The test

Interlocking pentagons used for the last question

The MMSE test includes simple questions and problems in a number of areas: the time and place of the test, repeating lists of words, arithmetic such as the serial sevens, language use and comprehension, and basic motor skills. For example, one question asks to copy a drawing of two pentagons (shown on the right).[1]

Although consistent application of identical questions increases the reliability of comparisons made using the scale, the test is sometimes customized (for example, for use on patients that are intubated, blind, or partially immobilized. Also, some have questioned the use of the test on the deaf.[3]) However, the number of points assigned per category is usually consistent:

Category, Possible points = Description
Orientation to time, 5 = From broadest to most narrow. Orientation to time has been correlated with future decline.
Orientation to place, 5 = From broadest to most narrow. This is sometimes narrowed down to streets, and sometimes to floor.
Registration, 3 = Repeating named prompts
Attention and calculation, 5 = Serial sevens, or spelling "world" backwards It has been suggested that serial sevens may be more appropriate in a population where English is not the first language.
Recall, 3 = Registration recall
Language, 2 = Name a pencil and a watch
Repetition, 1 = Speaking back a phrase
Complex commands, 6 = Varies. Can involve drawing figure shown.


Any score greater than or equal to 25 points (out of 30) is effectively normal (intact). Below this, scores can indicate severe (≤9 points), moderate (10-20 points) or mild (21-24 points)[9]. The raw score may also need to be corrected for educational attainment and age.[10] Low to very low scores correlate closely with the presence of dementia, although other mental disorders can also lead to abnormal findings on MMSE testing. The presence of purely physical problems can also interfere with interpretation if not properly noted; for example, a patient may be physically unable to hear or read instructions properly, or may have a motor deficit that affects writing and drawing skills.


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