Myocardial infarction (MI) is the irreversible necrosis of heart muscle secondary to prolonged ischemia. This usually results from an imbalance of oxygen supply and demand. The appearance of cardiac enzymes in the circulation generally indicates myocardial necrosis. Myocardial infarction is considered, more appropriately, part of a spectrum referred to as acute coronary syndromes (ACSs), which also includes unstable angina and non–ST-elevation MI (NSTEMI). Patients with ischemic discomfort may or may not have ST-segment elevation. Most of those with ST-segment elevation will develop Q waves. Those without ST elevations will ultimately be diagnosed with unstable angina or NSTEMI based on the presence of cardiac enzymes.
Myocardial infarction may lead to impairment of systolic function or diastolic function and to increased predisposition to arrhythmias and other long-term complications.
Atherosclerosis is the disease primarily responsible for most acute coronary syndrome cases. Approximately 90% of myocardial infarctions result from an acute thrombus that obstructs an atherosclerotic coronary artery. Plaque rupture is considered to be the major trigger of coronary thrombosis. Following plaque rupture, platelet activation and aggregation, coagulation pathway activation, and endothelial vasoconstriction occur and lead to coronary thrombosis and occlusion.
Consider nonatherosclerotic causes of acute myocardial infarctions in younger patients or if no evidence of atherosclerosis is noted. Such causes include coronary emboli from sources such as an infected cardiac valve through a patent foramen ovale (PFO), coronary occlusion secondary to vasculitis, primary coronary vasospasm (variant angina), cocaine use, or other factors leading to mismatch of oxygen supply and demand, as may occur with a significant gastrointestinal bleed.
Approximately 1.5 million cases of myocardial infarction occur each year.
Cardiovascular diseases cause 12 million deaths throughout the world each year, according to the third monitoring report of the World Health Organization, 1991-93. They cause half of all deaths in several developed countries and are one of the main causes of death in many developing countries; they are the major cause of death in adults everywhere.
Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death in the United States; approximately 500,000-700,000 deaths related to the coronary artery occur each year.
Ischemic heart disease is the leading cause of death worldwide.
Approximately 6.3 million deaths due to heart disease occurred in 1990 worldwide, which represents 29% of all deaths. The prevalence of coronary artery disease (CAD) is increasing rapidly in nonindustrialized countries.
Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality among African American, Hispanic, and white populations in the United States.
A male predominance in incidence exists up to approximately age 70 years, when the sexes converge to equal incidence.
Premenopausal women appear to be somewhat protected from atherosclerosis, possibly owing to the effects of estrogen.
Incidence increases with age.
Most patients who develop an acute myocardial infarction are older than 60 years. Elderly people also tend to have higher rates of morbidity and mortality from their infarcts.
Symptoms of myocardial infarction include the following:
This is usually described as a substernal pressure sensation that also may be described as squeezing, aching, burning, or even sharp pain.
Prolonged chest discomfort lasting longer than 30 minutes is most compatible with infarction.
Radiation to the left arm or neck is common.
The sensation is precipitated by exertion and relieved by rest and nitroglycerin.
Chest pain may be associated with nausea, vomiting, diaphoresis, dyspnea, fatigue, or palpitations.
Atypical chest pain is common, especially in patients with diabetes and in elderly patients. However, any patient may present with atypical symptoms. These symptoms are considered the anginal equivalent for that patient.
Shortness of breath
Shortness of breath may be the patient's anginal equivalent or a symptom of heart failure.
It is due to elevated end-diastolic pressures secondary to ischemia, which may then lead to elevated pulmonary pressures.
20% of patients are asymptomatic or have atypical symptoms.
Atypical presentations are common and frequently lead to misdiagnoses.
A patient may, for example, present with abdominal discomfort or jaw pain as his or her anginal equivalent.
An elderly patient may present with altered mental status.
Low threshold should be maintained when evaluating high- and moderate-risk patients, as their anginal equivalents may mimic other presentations.
Women tend to present more commonly with atypical symptoms such as sharp pain, fatigue, weakness, and other nonspecific complaints.
Physical examination findings for myocardial infarction can vary; one patient may be comfortable in bed, with normal examination results, while another may be in severe pain with significant respiratory distress requiring ventilatory support.
Low-grade fever may be present.
Hypotension or hypertension can be observed depending on the extent of the myocardial infarction.
Fourth heart sound (S 4 ) may be heard in patients with ischemia. With ischemia, diastolic dysfunction is the first physiologically measurable effect and this can then cause a stiff ventricle and an audible S 4 .
Dyskinetic cardiac bulge (in anterior wall myocardial infarction) can occasionally be palpated.
Systolic murmur can be heard if mitral regurgitation (MR) or ventricular septal defect (VSD) develops.
Other findings include cool, clammy skin and diaphoresis.
Signs of congestive heart failure (CHF) may be found, including the following:
Third heart sound (S 3 ) gallop
Lower extremity edema
Elevated jugular venous pressure
Atherosclerosis with occlusive or partially occlusive thrombus formation
Nonmodifiable risk factors for atherosclerosis
Family history of premature coronary heart disease
Modifiable risk factors for atherosclerosis
Smoking or other tobacco use
New and other risk factors for atherosclerosis
Elevated homocysteine levels
Male pattern baldness
Sedentary lifestyle and/or lack of exercise
Presence of peripheral vascular disease
Poor oral hygiene
Congenital coronary anomalies
Drug use (cocaine)
Factors that increase oxygen requirement, such as heavy exertion, fever, or hyperthyroidism
Factors that decrease oxygen delivery, such as hypoxemia of severe anemia
Abu Zubair meriwayatkan dari Jabir bin Abdullah bahwa Nabi Muhammad SAW bersabda:
"Setiap penyakit ada obatnya. Jika obat yang tepat diberikan dengan izin Allah, penyakit itu akan sembuh".
(HR. Muslim, Ahmad dan Hakim).
Jumat, 08 Januari 2010
Diposkan oleh FX di 19.52
The Holy Al-Qur'an (English version)
- Surah 1 - Al Fatiha THE OPENING
- Surah 2 - Al Baqarah THE HEIFER
- Surah 3 - Ali 'Imran - THE FAMILY OF 'IMRAN
- Surah 4 - Al-Nisa' THE WOMEN
- Surah 5 - Al Ma'idah THE REPAST
- Surah 6 - Al An'am THE CATTLE
- Surah 7 - Al A'raf THE HEIGHTS
- Surah 8 - Al Anfal THE SPOILS OF WAR
- Surah 9 - Al Tawbah THE REPENTANCE
- Surah 10 - Yunus JONAH
- Surah 11 - Hud THE PROPHET HUD
- Surah 12 - Yusuf JOSEPH
- Surah 13 - Al Ra'd THE THUNDER
- Surah 14 - Ibrahim ABRAHAM
- Surah 15 - Al Hijr THE ROCKY TRACT
- Surah 16 - Al Nahl BEES
- Surah 17 - Al Isra' THE NIGHT JOURNEY
- Surah 18 - Al Kahf THE CAVE
- Surah 19 - Maryam MARY
- Surah 20 - TA HA
- Surah 21 - Al Anbiya THE PROPHETS
- Surah 22 - Al Hajj THE PILGRIMAGE
- Surah 23 - Al Mu'minun THE BELIEVERS
- Surah 24 - Al Nur THE LIGHT
- Surah 25 - Al Furqan THE CRITERION
- Surah 26 - Al Shu'ara' THE POETS
- Surah 27 - Al Naml THE ANTS
- Surah 28 - Al Qasas THE NARRATIONS
- Surah 29 - Al 'Ankabut THE SPIDER
- Surah 30 - Al Rum THE ROMANS
- Surah 31 - Luqman LUQMAN
- Surah 32 - Al Sajdah THE PROSTRATION
- Surah 33 - Al Ahzab THE CONFEDERATES
- Surah 34 - Saba' SHEBA
- Surah 35 - Fatir THE ORIGINATOR OF CREATION
- Surah 36 - Ya Sin YA SIN
- Surah 37 - Al Saffat THOSE RANGED IN RANKS
- Surah 38 - Sad SAD
- Surah 39 - Al Zumar CROWDS
- Surah 40 - Ghafir FORGIVER
- Surah 41 - Fussilat EXPOUNDED
- Surah 42 - Al Shura CONSULTATION
- Surah 43 - Al Zukhruf THE GOLD ADORNMENTS
- Surah 44 - Al Dukhan THE SMOKE
- Surah 45 - Al Jathiyah THE KNEELING DOWN
- Surah 46 - Al Ahqaf WINDING SAND-TRACTS
- Surah 47 - Muhammad MUHAMMAD
- Surah 48 - Al Fath THE VICTORY
- Surah 49 - Al Hujurat THE CHAMBERS
- Surah 50 - Qaf QAF
- Surah 51 - Al Dhariyat THE WINDS THAT SCATTER
- Surah 52 - Al Tur THE MOUNT
- Surah 53 - Al Najm THE STAR
- Surah 54 - Al Qamar THE MOON
- Surah 55 - Al Rahman THE MOST GRACIOUS
- Surah 56 - Al Waq'iah THE INEVITABLE
- Surah 57 - Al Hadid IRON
- Surah 58 - Al Mujadilah THE WOMAN WHO PLEADS
- Surah 59 - Al Hashr THE MUSTERING
- Surah 60 - Al Mumtahinah THAT WHICH EXAMINES
- Surah 61 - Al Saff THE BATTLE ARRAY
- Surah 62 - Al Jumu'ah FRIDAY
- Surah 63 - Al Munafiqun THE HYPOCRITES
- Surah 64 - Al Taghabun THE MUTUAL LOSS AND GAIN
- Surah 65 - Al Talaq DIVORCE
- Surah 66 - Al Tahrim PROHIBITION
- Surah 67 - Al Mulk THE DOMINION
- Surah 68 - Al Qalam THE PEN
- Surah 69 - Al Haqqah THE SURE REALITY
- Surah 70 - Al Ma'arij THE WAYS OF ASCENT
- Surah 71 - Nuh NOAH
- Surah 72 - Al Jinn THE SPIRITS
- Surah 73 - Al Muzzammil THE ENFOLDED ONE
- Surah 74 - Al Muddaththir THE ONE WRAPPED UP
- Surah 75 - Al Qiyamah THE RESURRECTION
- Surah 76 - Al Insan MAN
- Surah 77 - Al Mursalat THOSE SENT FORTH
- Surah 78 - Al Naba' THE GREAT NEWS
- Surah 79 - Al Nazi'at THOSE WHO TEAR OUT
- Surah 80 - 'Abasa HE FROWNED
- Surah 81 - Al Takwir THE FOLDING UP
- Surah 82 - Al Infitar THE CLEAVING ASUNDER
- Surah 83 - Al Mutaffifin THE DEALERS IN FRAUD
- Surah 84 - Al Inshiqaq THE RENDING ASUNDER
- Surah 85 - Al Buruj THE CONSTELLATIONS
- Surah 86 - Al Tariq THE NIGHT STAR
- Surah 87 - Al A'la THE MOST HIGH
- Surah 88 - Al Ghashiyah THE OVERWHELMING EVENT
- Surah 89 - Al Fajr THE DAWN
- Surah 90 - Al Balad THE CITY
- Surah 91 - Al Shams THE SUN
- Surah 92 - Al Layl THE NIGHT
- Surah 93 - Al Duha THE GLORIOUS MORNING LIGHT
- Surah 94 - Al Sharh THE EXPANSION OF THE BREAST
- Surah 95 - Al Tin THE FIG
- Surah 96 - Al Alaq THE CLINGING CLOT
- Surah 97 - Al Qadr THE NIGHT OF POWER
- Surah 98 - Al Bayyinah THE CLEAR EVIDENCE
- Surah 99 - Al Zalzalah THE EARTHQUAKE
- Surah 100 - Al 'Adiyat THOSE THAT RUN
- Surah 101 - Al Qari'ah THE GREAT CALAMITY
- Surah 102 - Al Takathur THE PILING UP
- Surah 103 - Al 'Asr TIME THROUGH THE AGES
- Surah 104 - Al Humazah THE SCANDALMONGER
- Surah 105 - Al Fil THE ELEPHANT
- Surah 106 - Quraysh THE TRIBE OF QURAYSH
- Surah 107 - Al Ma'un THE NEIGHBOURLY ASSISTANCE
- Surah 108 - Al Kawthar THE ABUNDANCE
- Surah 109 - Al Kafirun THOSE WHO REJECT FAITH
- Surah 110 - Al Nasr THE HELP
- Surah 111 - Al Masad THE PLAITED ROPE
- Surah 112 - Al Ikhlas THE PURITY OF FAITH
- Surah 113 - Al Falaq THE DAYBREAK
- Surah 114 - Al Nas MANKIND
- Acute Coronary Syndromes
- Angina Pectoris
- Anomalous Left Coronary Artery From the Pulmonary Artery
- Aortic Coarctation
- Aortic Dissection
- Aortic Regurgitation
- Aortic Stenosis
- Aortic Stenosis, Subaortic
- Aortic Stenosis, Supravalvar
- Ashman Phenomenon
- Atrial Fibrillation
- Atrial Flutter
- Atrial Myxoma
- Atrial Septal Defect
- Atrial Tachycardia
- Atrioventricular Block
- Atrioventricular Dissociation
- Atrioventricular Nodal Reentry Tachycardia (AVNRT)
- Benign Cardiac Tumors
- Brugada Syndrome
- Complications of Myocardial Infarction
- Coronary Artery Atherosclerosis
- Coronary Artery Vasospasm
- Digitalis Toxicity
- Dissection, Aortic
- Ebstein Anomaly
- Eisenmenger Syndrome
- First-Degree Atrioventricular Block
- HACEK Group Infections (Infective Endocarditis)
- Heart Failure - Decompensatio Cordis
- Holiday Heart Syndrome
- Hypertensive Heart Disease
- Junctional Rhythm
- Loeffler Endocarditis
- Long QT Syndrome
- Lutembacher Syndrome
- Mitral Regurgitation
- Mitral Stenosis
- Mitral Valve Prolapse
- Myocardial Infarction
- Myocardial Rupture
- Paroxysmal Supraventricular Tachycardia
- Patent Ductus Arteriosus
- Patent Foramen Ovale
- Pericardial Effusion
- Pericarditis Acute
- Pericarditis, Constrictive
- Pericarditis, Constrictive-Effusive
- Pulmonic Regurgitation
- Pulmonic Stenosis
- Right Ventricular Infarction
- Saphenous Vein Graft Aneurysms
- Second-Degree Atrioventricular Block
- Sinus of Valsalva Aneurysm
- Sudden Cardiac Death
- Tetralogy of Fallot
- Third-Degree Atrioventricular Block
- Torsade de Pointes
- Tricuspid Regurgitation
- Tricuspid Stenosis
- Unstable Angina
- Ventricular Fibrillation
- Ventricular Septal Defect
- Ventricular Tachycardia
- Wolff-Parkinson-White Syndrome